Here the interest is in evaluating moral and ethical theories and systems. A lie which saves a life, comes under this. For example, any action in terms of Capital punishment, Jails, Income taxes and Medical charges etc.
More precisely, a moral theory can help us to sharpen our moral vision, it helps us determine whether an action or a rule is ethically right meaning it is required and must be performed and followedwrong meaning it must not be performed or followedor permissible meaning it may be, but need not be, performed or followed.
Any action done by a person that would prevent a fellow being from living a good and happy life, is considered immoral or unnatural. The leaders of the workshop at IIT did not feel that it was necessary to teach moral theory to students.
Problem in Application The application of this theory varies from one person to another with their powers of reasoning and the difficulty in applying the theory to ethical problems.
Any law should have some morals. Moral theories are another tool to help an individual clearly and logically think about an ethical issue, and arrive at a decision that can be rationally defended. While the teleological approach focuses in the consequences of a particular action, the deontological approach, alternatively, emphasizes the character of the act itself.
A company should define what it considers to be moral and establish a moral code that is consistent company wide. Both may be adapted to the computerized society so that one may act morally regarding technology.
The normative ethical theories that are briefly covered in this chapter are: Utilitarianism. Because ethical theories enable one to get beyond intuitions and emotions, they can hold a very substantial position in the business world.
Before attempting to solve the ethical dilemmas relating to computing, one must determine which ethical theory should be applied to various situations.