Social explanation of aggression
Frustration aggression hypothesis
Anger: The Misunderstood Emotion. In Leonard Berkowitz Ed. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22, — A cat does not hiss or arch its back when pursuing a rat, and the active areas in its hypothalamus resemble those that reflect hunger rather than those that reflect aggression. Because our definition requires us to determine the intent of the perpetrator, there is going to be some interpretation of these intents and there may well be disagreement among the parties involved. Environmental Stressors and Aggressive Behavior. Research on the relationship between testosterone and aggression is difficult since the only reliable measurement of brain testosterone is by a lumbar puncture which is not done for research purposes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Perhaps terrorists are individuals with some kind of deep psychological disturbance. Game theory is used to understand how such behaviors might spread by natural selection within a population, and potentially become 'Evolutionary Stable Strategies'. In general, aggression, conflict and violence sometimes occur, but direct confrontation is generally avoided and conflict is socially managed by a variety of verbal and non-verbal methods. Nonverbal aggression also occurs in the form of sexual, racial, and homophobic jokes and epithets, which are designed to cause harm to individuals. Donnerstein Eds. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, — It is often the root of the unthinkable brutality and injustice perpetuated by human beings.
There are noticeable sex differences in aggression. However, a small subset of children fail to acquire all the necessary self-regulatory abilities and tend to show atypical levels of physical aggression across development.
What are the thoughts and feelings that terrorists experience that drive them to their extreme behaviors?
Biological explanation of aggression
In Paul H. Key Takeaways Aggression refers to behavior that is intended to harm another individual. Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyberbullying. Brown, Jr. Gonadal steroids generally regulate aggression during the breeding season, but non-gonadal steroids may regulate aggression during the non-breeding season. Castration of various species in the non-breeding season has no effect on territorial aggression. Google Scholar Copyright information. Google Scholar Ross, Lee. In Edward J. And not all intentional behaviors that hurt others are aggressive behaviors. Is it time to pull the plug on hostile versus instrumental aggression dichotomy? Instrumental aggression is aimed at hurting someone to gain something—attention, monetary reward, or political power, for instance. Psychology Today, 15, 11— However, conflicts over food are rarely followed by post conflict reunions, even though they are the most frequent type in foraging primates. Because aggression is so difficult to define, social psychologists, judges, and politicians as well as many other people, including lawyers , have spent a great deal of time trying to determine what should and should not be considered aggression.
An animal defending against a predator may engage in either " fight or flight " or " tend and befriend " in response to predator attack or threat of attack, depending on its estimate of the predator's strength relative to its own.
A bully who hits a child and steals her toys, a terrorist who kills civilians to gain political exposure, and a hired assassin are all good examples of instrumental aggression. Mussen Ed. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 48, — Social Problems, 25, — Although there is much variation in species, generally the more physically aggressive sex is the male, particularly in mammals.
Google Scholar Cook, Thomas D. Google Scholar Rule, Brendan G. This in turn can relate to factors such as: norms for coordinating actions and dividing resources; what is considered self-defense or provocation; attitudes towards 'outsiders', attitudes towards specific groups such as women, the disabled or the lower status; the availability of alternative conflict resolution strategies; trade interdependence and collective security pacts; fears and impulses; and ultimate goals regarding material and social outcomes.
Are they naturally evil people whose primary desire is to hurt others? However, it may be that proactive aggression is associated with low cortisol levels while reactive aggression may be accompanied by elevated levels.
Theories of aggression
Morristown: General Learning Press. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15, — And what person and situational variables cause terrorism? Google Scholar Taylor, Stuart P. Psychological Bulletin, 89, — It always requires a suspension of aggression and dominance along with a heightened sensitivity to the needs and desires of the other players". Doing so forces us to make use of the processes of causal attribution to help us determine the reasons for the behavior of others. Studies therefore have often instead used more unreliable measurements from blood or saliva. In Katherine Kelley Ed. Because aggression is so difficult to define, social psychologists, judges, and politicians as well as many other people, including lawyers , have spent a great deal of time trying to determine what should and should not be considered aggression.
In adult rats, acute injections of corticosterone promote aggressive behavior and acute reduction of corticosterone decreases aggression; however, a chronic reduction of corticosterone levels can produce abnormally aggressive behavior.
based on 74 review