Goffman e. 1967. interaction ritual essays on face-to-face behavior

If the audience is in disagreement with the image an individual is presenting then the individual's presentation of self is interrupted. This is why often a simple head nod or grunt is accepted as an appropriate response in conversation.

on face work summary

The types of frames Goffman is considering are discussed in previous sections of the book, "fabrications, keyings, frame breaks, misframing, and, of course, frame disputes. The definition are all predetermined and individuals choose how they will act by choosing the proper behavior for the social situation they are in.

Society is not homogeneous; we must act differently in different settings. Therefore, people remain guarded, to ensure that they do not show themselves to others in an unfavorable light.

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Society is not homogeneous; we must act differently in different settings. In the chapter "The Frame Analyses of Talk," the focus is put on how words are exchanged and what is being said, specifically in informal talk or conversation. At the same time, the person that the individual is interacting with attempts to form an impression of, and obtain information about, the individual. Goffman analyzes all of these topics in a very in-depth and easy to understand format. This act shows protectiveness according to Goffman. It is one of his few works that clearly engage with that perspective. Stigma pertains to the shame that a person may feel when he or she fails to meet other people's standards, and to the fear of being discredited — which causes the individual not to reveal his or her shortcomings. He saw a connection between the kinds of "acts" that people put on in their daily lives and theatrical performances. In sharp contrast to the natural tendency of many scholars to tackle big, important topics, Goffman was a minimalist, working on a small scale, and concentrating on the most mundane, ordinary social contacts, on everyday life. Inconsistency in how a person projects him or herself in society risks embarrassment and discrediting.

It commonly appears in: t. Frame analysisthen, is the study of the organization of social experience. With relative size, women are generally shown smaller or lower than men in terms of girth and height. Goffman uses the metaphor of conversation being a stage play. Power and superiority is typically associated with masculinity while vulnerability and objectification is usually associated with femininity.

He draws distinctions between several types of public gatherings "gatherings", "situations", "social occasions" and types of audiences acquainted versus unacquainted.

Goffman also claims that a speaker details a drama more often than they provide information.

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Interaction Ritual Essays on Face to Face Behavior by Goffman Erving